What is covered and protected by the regulation

Which end-users are protected by the Regulation, and how?

The Regulation establishes rights in relation to the open internet for “end-users”. Using the legal definitions provided in the EU regulatory framework for electronic communications, BEREC understands that the rights are available to both individual consumers and businesses using internet access services. The businesses enjoying this protection include content and application providers (CAPs) insofar as they use an internet access service to provide content or applications to other end-users. A CAP is a company which makes content (e.g. webpages, blogs, video) and / or applications (e.g. search engines, VoIP applications), and / or services available on the internet.

As well as providing rights to end-users, the Regulation establishes common rules “to safeguard equal and non-discriminatory treatment of traffic”. It is widely understood that the internet has greatly contributed to growth and innovation in our economies – the low barriers to entry on the open platform of the internet have provided particularly fertile ground for new content and applications to develop, and for information to flow freely. These new net neutrality rules seek to ensure that the internet ecosystem can continue to flourish as an engine of innovation and freedom of expression.

What kinds of service are covered under the Regulation?

The Regulation covers the provision of internet access services and of specialised services (see below). Regarding internet access services, these are publicly-available electronic communication services which provide access to the internet, and thereby connectivity to virtually all end points of the internet, irrespective of the network technology (e.g. fibre, cable, mobile) used, and irrespective of the terminal equipment (e.g. mobile phone handset, tablet, laptop) used.

Consequently, BEREC considers the following as not being within the scope of the Regulation and not subject to the rules:

  • Subject to an assessment by the NRAs of the individual cases, access to the internet provided by cafés and restaurants and internal corporate networks because these are typically limited to a predetermined group of end-users and might therefore be not “publicly available”
  • Services where the access to the internet is limited by the nature of the terminal equipment, such as M2M devices like smart meters and e-book readers.

On the other hand, BEREC considers ‘sub-internet services’ to be within the scope of the Regulation and an infringement of the rules. BEREC defines a sub-internet service as one which would restrict access to services or applications (e.g. banning the use of VoIP or video streaming) or which would enable access to only a pre-defined part of the internet (e.g. access only to particular websites).

Why do ISPs need to provide access to “virtually all endpoints of the internet” rather than the entire internet?

BEREC understands that the rules refer to access to “virtually” all parts of the internet because the ISP providing the access controls only a small part of the internet, and it is possible that not all parts of the internet can be reached all of the time due to reasons outside of the control of the ISP, e.g. due to regulation in other countries.

Does the Regulation cover interconnection services?

Interconnection services are distinct from internet access services. Interconnections enable traffic to be exchanged between networks across the internet, and interconnection services can be provided by many different operators, including wholesale (‘backbone’) and retail telecom operators, content delivery network (CDN) companies, and large content providers (e.g. YouTube, Netflix) which operate their own CDNs.  

Given that the Regulation is focused on internet access services provided to end-users, BEREC does not consider interconnection services to be within scope of the Regulation. Nevertheless, NRAs may take into account the interconnection policies and practices of ISPs in so far as they have the effect of limiting the exercise end-user rights under Article 3(1). For example, this may be relevant in some cases, such as if the interconnection is implemented in a way which seeks to circumvent the Regulation.


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